Soviet ideology

The Soviet regime, led by Joseph Stalin, planned the expansion of their ideology (Marxism–Leninism) and lent lip service to the advancement of world revolution. In reality, Stalin adhered to the Socialism in one country doctrine and used it to justify the massive industrialization of the USSR during the 1930s. Nazi Germany, which positioned itself as a consistently anti-Communist regime, and which formalised this position by signing the Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan[17] and Italy,[18][19] was a direct ideological antipode of the Communist Soviet Union. The ideological tensions had transformed into the proxy war between Nazi Germany and the USSR,[20] when, in 1936, Germany and Fascist Italy interfered in the Spanish Civil War, supporting Spanish Nationalists, while the Soviets supported the predominantly socialist and communist-led[21] Second Spanish Republic.[18] German Anschluss of Austria in 1938 and the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia demonstrated the impossibility of establishing a collective security system in Europe,[22] a policy advocated by the Soviet ministry of foreign affairs Maxim Litvinov.[23][24] This, as well as the inability of the British and French leadership to sign a full-scale anti-German political and military alliance with USSR,[25] led to the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact between the Soviet Union and Germany in late August 1939.[26] The signing of this non-aggression pact led to a turn of Soviet propaganda. The Nazis were not portrayed as sworn enemies anymore, and the media of the Soviet Union presented the Germans as neutrals, blaming Poland, the United Kingdom and France for the start of the war. However, after the German attack the position of the Soviet government shifted completely to an anti-Nazi stance. The Anti-Comintern Pact was an anti-Communist pact concluded between Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan (later to be joined by other, mainly fascistic, governments) on November 25, 1936 and was directed against the Communist International (Comintern). "recognizing that the aim of the Communist International, known as the Comintern, is to disintegrate and subdue existing States by all the means at its command; convinced that the toleration of interference by the Communist International in the internal affairs of the nations not only ndangers their internal peace and social well?being, but is also a menace to the peace of the world desirous of co?operating in the defense against Communist subversive activities" The origins of the Anti-Comintern Pact go back to the autumn of 1935, when various German officials both within and without the Foreign Ministry were attempting to balance the competing demands upon the Reich's foreign policy by its traditional alliance with China vs Hitler's desire for friendship with China's archenemy, Japan.[1] In October 1935, the idea was mooted that an anti-Communist alliance might be able to tie in the Kuomintang regime, Japan and Germany.[1] In particular, this idea appealed to Joachim von Ribbentrop, the Special Ambassador at Large and head of the Dienststelle Ribbentrop and the Japanese Military Attache in Berlin, General Oshima Hiroshi, who hoped that such an alliance might lead to China's subordination to Japan.[1] Lack of Chinese interest doomed the project's original intention, but October–November 1935, Ribbentrop and Oshima worked out a treaty directed against the Comintern.[1] The Pact was to be originally introduced in late November 1935 with invitations for Britain, Italy, China and Poland to join.[1] However, concerns by the German Foreign Minister Baron Konstantin von Neurath and War Minister Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg that the pact might damage Chinese-German relations plus political disarray in Tokyo following the failed military coup of February 26, 1936 led to the Pact's being shelved for a year.[1] By the summer of 1936, the increased influence of the military in the Japanese government, concerns in Berlin and Tokyo about the Franco-Soviet alliance, and Hitler's desire for a dramatic anti-Communist foreign policy gesture that he believed might bring about an Anglo-German alliance led to the idea of the Anti-Comintern Pact being revived.[1] The Pact was initialed on October 23, 1936, and signed on November 25, 1936.[1] In order to avoid damaging relations with the Soviet Union, the Pact was supposedly directed only against the Comintern, but in fact contained a secret agreement that in the event of either signatory power becoming involved with a war with the Soviet Union, the other signatory power would maintain a benevolent neutrality.